The region is bounded by the shore of Lake Constance on the south, the Hegau region on the west, the Rhine-Danube watershed on the north, and the Schussen valley on the east. It reaches west as far as Überlingen and north as far as Pfullendorf. The highest peak is Mt. Höchsten with a height of 837.8 m (2,749 ft).
The southern part of the Linzgau lies on the banks of Lake Constance and has a milder climate, which lends itself to fruit orchards and vineyards. The landscape is rolling, but fairly flat, with occasional drumlins caused by deposits from the retreating Rhine Glacier in the last ice age.
The northern part (or upper Linzgau) has a more rugged climate and rises to as high as 833 m. It is characterized by glacial moraines, with occasional swamps and small lakes, especially in the northeast. Agriculture is largely dedicated to grain.
Most of the Linzgau is still rural, with the most heavily populated areas along the shores of Lake Constance. The largest cities are Überlingen, Pfullendorf, and Markdorf.